More publications of interest

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  • Biology and Management of Thickhead (Crassocephalum crepidioides) in Ornamental Crop Production (Bechtloff et al., 2019)
    Habitat, distribution, growth habit, identification, similar species, plant biology, management and control are discussed in this fact sheet.
  • The genera of Sapindales in the southeastern United States (Brizicky, 1963)
    The families Sapindaceae, Aceraceae, and Hippocastanaceae (as well as several others occurring beyond our limits constitute the order Sapindales.
  • The genera of Celastrales in the southeastern United States (Brizicky, 1964)
    The order Celastrales, as delimited here, includes the families Celastraceae, Hippocrateaceae, and Aquifoliaceae, as well as several other allied families (e.g., Siphonodontaceae, Stackhousiaceae) not represented in the southeastern United States.
  • The genera of Sterculiaceae in the Southeastern US (Brizicky, 1966)
    Sterculiaceae are closely related to Tiliaceae, Malvaceae, and Bombacaceae.
  • Deutzia crenata (Hydrangeaceae), the identity of the common invasive Deutzia in the US (Brock, 2022)
    Overreliance on cultivated material of hybrid origin has obscured the distinctiveness of D. crenata from D. scabra and led to misidentification errors in a recent phylogenetic analysis. Deutzia crenata is the correct identity of naturalized North American Deutzia populations.
  • A monograph of the genus Physostegia (Labiatae) (Cantino, 1982)
    Species delimitation in Physostegia has long been a source of confusion. This derives in part from the lack of any thorough investigation of the morphological variation to be found in the genus as a whole.
  • Status and identification of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae & Limnobium spongia (Hydrocharitaceae) in ne. North America (Catling & Dore, 1982)
    The European Hydrocharis morsus-ranae differs from most North American aquatics in having very rounded leaves with five prominent and converging primary veins, but these characters do not distinguish it from floating-leaved forms of Limnobium spongia.
  • Aquatic Plants of the Southeastern United States (Eyles et al., 1944)
    The purpose of this compilation is to enable workers in the field, with little knowledge of botany, to identify at least generically those fresh water plants with which mosquito breeding is associated. It is hoped that the keys and short notes with their accompanying illustrations will obviate the use of the difficult and cumbersome manuals which are at present the principal source of knowledge concerning the Southeastern aquatic plants, and will enable the worker to make more accurate and adequate evaluations of the area in which he is working.... Divisions in the key are made in as great measure as possible on vegetative characters... Each genus of the main key is illustrated by a drawing of a representative plant.
  • A New Species of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) from Mississippi (Fennell, 2015)
    As part of a project to document the vascular flora of Wayne County, Mississippi, an unusual Euphorbia, which keys to the Euphorbia corollata complex, was encountered in mature hardwood forests in limestone regions. Unlike typical E. corollata and E. pubentissima, these individuals have long petioles, oval to ovate leaves, short stature, small cyathia, small seeds, and a different phenology.
  • Indigofera suffruticosa, wild indigo FABACEAE - USDA FS (Francis)
    Wild indigo is a short-lived shrub that reaches 1 to 2 m in height. It is native to Southern United States through tropical and subtropical South America as well as the Caribbean Islands. Although indigo obtained from other species of Indigofera was used in the Old World, the use of wild indigo by pre-Columbian natives of Mexico to dye cloth and paint in various shades of blue was passed down to the Spanish colonists ...
  • A New Sessile-flowered Trillium from SC (Gaddy, 2008)
    Trillium oostingii, a new sessile-flowered Trillium from Kershaw and Richland County, South Carolina is described. It is closely related to Trillium lancifolium Raf. and Trillium recurvatum Beck. All known populations of this plant are found just below the Fall Line in the floodplain of the Wateree River.
  • Shortia brevistyla ... (Diapensiaceae), a narrow endemic from the headwaters of the Catawba River in NC (Gaddy et al., 2019)
    Morphological, geographic, and molecular data justify recognition of Shortia brevistyla (Shortia galacifolia Torr. & A. Gray var. brevistyla P.A. Davies) as a distinct species rather than a variety of Shortia galacifolia. All known populations of the new Shortia brevistyla are found within a 10 km radius on the headwaters of the Catawba River in McDowell County, North Carolina, approximately 100 km northeast of the range of S. galacifolia. Shortia brevistyla has significantly smaller flowers, shorter styles, shorter petals, and smaller leaves than S. galacifolia.
  • The spider lilies (Hymenocallis) native to Florida (Garland, Smith, & Anderson. 2013)
    Explorers of the southeastern United States, if they are fortunate, will sometimes encounter hundreds of large, brilliant white spider lilies, of the genus Hymenocallis in the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), covering floodplains, lining stream banks, covering the rocky shoals of certain Piedmont river systems and perfuming the air with a lemony fragrance. Such displays are some of nature’s most spectacular scenes. Hymenocallis species differ in subtle ways and have confused botanists for centuries. This work clarifies distinctions among the species.
  • Identification of Caulophyllum giganteum (Haines, 2003)
    This note discusses identification of Caulophyllum giganteum and the more well-known C. thalictroides.
  • The Lantana Mess, A Critical Look at the Genus in Florida (Hammer, 2004)
    There is much controversy, concern, and confusion when it comes to the native, naturalized, and cultivated members of the genus Lantana in Florida. The problem species in Florida is Lantana camara, which is thought to have originated in the West Indies but is now a cosmopolitan weed of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions. As a species, it is very complex and taxonomically confusing, and is even thought to have originated from interbreeding between two or more tropical American species. The resulting hybrids have then been variously referred to as separate species, subspecies, varieties, forms, biotypes, and cultivars. Lantana camara is notoriously poisonous and deaths have been reported throughout its range. The plant is so toxic that getting caught with a plant on one’s property in some African countries can result in fines, incarceration, and beatings. Because there is so much confusion and controversy in the nursery trade over what is Lantana depressa var. depressa and what is not, native-plant enthusiasts and nurseries specializing in native plants should avoid low-growing, yellow-flowered lantanas entirely and use the widespread native Lantana involucrata or some other suitable species instead. I realize that this opinion will not be popular ... but there are a lot of lantanas being sold as Florida natives that are clearly not, and there appears to be no indisputable distinction between the plants being sold as Lantana depressa var. depressa and the known Lantana camara hybrids. So if you are a native-plant aficionado, it is better to err on the side of caution when it comes to this lantana mess.
  • A new Hexastylis (Aristolochiaceae) from Northeast Alabama (U.S.A.) with notes on the species "groups" within the genus (Keener, 2020)
    A new species of Hexastylis, H. finzelii, is described from northeast Alabama. The historical species groups within Hexastylis are re-evaluated.
  • Revisiting the Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Problems of the Quercus sinuata Walter Complex (Lance, 2022)
    Three oak taxa are popularly considered representative of or allied to the Durand oak species complex. Taxonomic disagreement regarding the parameters of each taxon, whether deserving of specific, varietal, or synonymous status, has been ongoing since the beginning of the 19th century. Across the Southern United States, from Central Texas eastward across the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains to South Carolina, these three oaks have remained more distinctive in appearance than in nomenclatural clarity. This paper is a summary of the problems associated with recognition of Durand oak and an introduction to a research effort striving for remedial propositions.
  • A monograph of the genus Baptisia (Larisey, 1940)
    The first Baptisia species described were of the eastern states. As the country developed westward, attempts were made to fit the western specimens into the first descriptions. In time the original descriptions were modified to include the newer types, and in a few instances ... the true nature of the species as originally described was lost. It was with the idea of straightening out as many of these problems as possible that the present investigation was undertaken.
  • Carex lutea (Cyperaceae), a rare new Coastal Plain endemic from North Carolina (LeBlond et al., 1994)
    Carex lutea (section Ceratocystis) is described from the outer coastal plain of southern North Carolina. It is the only species of this section to occur south of New Jersey along the Atlantic Coast, and appears to be a localized endemic of wet savannas underlain by limestone deposits.
  • Field Guide to Aquatic Plants of Alabama (Lovell, 2007)
    The first step toward correct identification of an aquatic plantis to observe how it is growing in the water. Some species may exhibit different growth forms in response to their environment. Furthermore, a plant’s growth form may change during its life cycle. However, aquatic vegetation can be placed in to the following growth forms in which they are most often observed at maturity: emersed, submersed, floating-leaved, filamentous (algae), or planktonic (algae). Over 60 taxa are described and pictured.
  • Amur Honeysuckle, Its Fall from Grace (Luken & Thieret, 1994)
    In this article, we present a chronology of events documenting nearly 150 years of interaction between western plant scientists and the eastern Asiatic shrub Amur honeysuckle, Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder; Caprifoliaceae. Within less than a century after its deliberate introduction into North America, Amur honeysuckle is growing and reproducing in at least 24 states of the eastern United States and in Ontario, Canada. Why and how was Amur honeysuckle intentionally introduced into cultivation? What lifehistory traits of the species contribute to both positive and negative interactions with humans? How have the different perceptions of Amur honeysuckle created divergent management policies?
  • Taxonomic revision of the Opuntia humifusa complex (Opuntieae: Cactaceae) of the eastern US (Majure et al., 2017)
    Opuntia Miller (1754) (tribe Opuntieae DC.) is a genus native to the Americas and it is distributed from southern Argentina to Canada. Opuntia diplays a peculiar set of morphological characters including longitudinally flattened, determinate stem segments, or cladodes, that take over the photosynthetic function of the small and ephemeral long shoot leaves, which are produced as the cladode develops. Here we present a taxonomic revision of the southeastern subclade of the Humifusa clade and polyploid derivatives that commonly occur in the eastern United States (i.e., the O. humifusa complex). We recognize eight taxa: Opuntia abjecta, O. austrina, O. cespitosa, O. drummondii, O. humifusa, O. mesacantha subsp. mesacantha, O. mesacantha subsp. lata, and O. nemoralis, as well as the interclade allopolyploid, Opuntia ochrocentra, derived, in part, from a member of the O. humifusa complex. Diagnostic keys, descriptions, original photos, and distribution maps are provided for each taxon.
  • A new species of Trichostema (Lamiaceae, Ajugoideae) from barrier island systems of North and South Carolina (McClelland & Weakley, 2019)
    A new species of Trichostema, narrowly endemic to maritime grasslands in the Carolinas and warranting formal conservation status and action.
  • Rhododendron viscosum var. serrulatum: Dirt Roads, Mud Holes, and Living Things (Miller, 2012)
    Too often it seems as though institutional taxonomists and we field men dwell in parallel universes.... Someone who has observed var. serrulatum in its native haunts can scarcely avoid its individuality, its personality....
  • Many Plants Have Extrafloral Nectaries Helpful to Beneficials (Mizell, 2001)
    Most everyone is aware that flowers commonly produce nectar that is important in encouraging pollination as well as providing food for hummingbirds and insects. However, few people are aware of the extrafloral nectaries (EFN), nectar-producing glands physically apart from the flower, that have been identified in more than 2000 plant species in more than 64 families.
  • Georgia Quillworts (Musselman, 2001)
    Not only are quillworts easily overlooked, they are ignored even by experienced botanists. I know. I was one of them. One of my objectives [in this article] is to encourage a closer look and to raise awareness of the urgent need for habitat protection for these poorly known yet engaging denizens of a diversity of habitats. Hidden in places that are wet at least part of the year, quillworts are allies of ferns. I will outline, in a cursory manner, the morphology of the plant, describe reproduction, and then briefly discuss the species known from the state. (Georgia has the greatest diversity of quillworts in North America and one of the richest quillwort floras anywhere in the world.)
  • Taxonomy of the Liatris pilosa (graminifolia) complex (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) (Nesom & Stucky, 2004)
    Liatris graminifolia Willd. is the name generally used for the grass-leaved gayfeather of the southeastern United States. Gray (1884), Gaiser (1946), and Wilbur (1962) observed that the name Liairis pilosa (Alton) Willd. apparently applies to this species and has priority; Fernald and Griscom (1938) dissented, but the present study concurs that G. pilosa should replace L. graminifolia as the correct name.... It is clear that Liatris pilosa, L. elegantula, L. virgata, and L. cokeri are closely related among themselves. Morphological differences among them, mostly in involucral features, are relatively small but they are consistent.... A taxonomic summary is provided, including nomenclature, distribution maps, ecological summaries, and a key.
  • A new hedge-nettle (Stachys: Lamiaceae) from SC (Nelson & Rayner, 2014)
    A distinctive and geographically restricted species of Stachys, S. caroliniana (Lamiaceae), or “hedge-nettle,” is described from South Carolina, as a member of the flora of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern U.S.A. Stachys caroliniana differs from S. pilosa, S. arenicola, and S. aspera in having only short, dense stem pubescence on both stems sides and angles, the hairs of uniform size; in having shorter calyx lobes; and in having nearly white corollas.
  • Again: Taxonomy of Yellow-flowered Caulescent Oxalis in eastern North America (Nesom, 2009)
    The taxonomy of Oxalis sect. Corniculatae is revised for eastern North America and contrasted with previous classifications and circumscriptions. Eight taxa, some previously recognized as subspecies or varieties, are recognized here at species rank.
  • Further Observations on the Oxalis dillenii Group (Oxalidaceae) (Nesom et al., 2014)
    The Oxalis dillenii group as recognized here includes O. dillenii Jacq., O. texana (Small) Fedde, O. macrantha (Trel.) Small, O. colorea (Small) Fedde, and O. florida Salisb., all species native to eastern, southeastern, and south-central USA. Oxalis dillenii is the most widely distributed. The most consistent differences among them are primarily in vestiture, corolla size and coloration, and anther/stigma arrangement.
  • Taxonomy of Galactia (Fabaceae) in the USA (Nesom, 2015)
    Galactia in the USA includes 21 species.... Galactia regularis (L.) B.S.P. is the species widespread across the eastern USA with twining stems, broadly elliptic leaflets, and relatively small flowers, while G. volubilis (L.) Britt. (with G. macreei M.A. Curtis and G. glabella Michx. as synonyms) is the mostly coastal plain species with twining stems but narrower leaflets and larger flowers –– this application of G. regularis and G. volubilis essentially agrees with W.H. Duncan' assessment in 1979. Galactia brachypoda Torr. & Gray is the correct name for the widespread Atlantic coast species with procumbent (mostly non-twining) stems and relatively large flowers.... A key to species is provided, as well as a typification summary, brief morphological and ecological description, and county-level distribution map for each species.
  • Erigeron floribundus and E. sumatrensis (Asteraceae) in the USA and Mexico (Nesom, 2018)
    Erigeron sumatrensis Retz. is widely naturalized both in California and the southeastern USA as well as in southern Mexico. Erigeron floribundus (Kunth) Sch. Bip. is naturalized in California and Mexico. County-level maps (USA) are provided for the geographic range of both species, which are compared with the more widespread E. bonariensis by a key and illustrations. The three species also are mapped for Mexico. A formal nomenclatural summary provides typification and synonymy.
  • Notes on the occurrence of Erigeron sumatrensis (Asteraceae) in Georgia (Nesom, 2018)
    A survey for Erigeron sumatrensis in central Georgia indicates that it is densely distributed on the the coastal plain there, suggesting that its occurrence may be similar from South Carolina to Louisiana. Vouchers and a distribution map for the Georgia records are provided.
  • Taxonomic synopsis of Pityopsis (Asteraceae) (Nesom, 2019)
    A taxonomic synopsis of the genus Pityopsis that recognizes 12 species, none with infraspecific taxa.
  • A new species of Ionactis (Asteraceae: Astereae) from the east Gulf Coastal Plain (Nesom, 2020)
    A population system of Ionactis from the east Gulf Coastal Plain is recognized as Ionactis repens Nesom, sp. nov., discontinously distinct in morphology and geography from the widespread I. linariifolia.
  • Taxonomy of Tiarella (Saxifragaceae) in the eastern USA (Nesom, 2021)
    Plants identified as Tiarella cordifolia L. sensu lato occur widely over the eastern USA and closely adjacent southeastern Canada. Tiarella in the eastern USA is recognized here as comprising 5 species. Included are summaries of formal taxonomy, photos of types and representative collections, field photos, a key to species, distribution maps, discussions of variation, and phylogenetic hypotheses.
  • The Liatris elegans group (Astereae): taxonomic review (Nesom, 2021)
    Mayfield's overview of the Liatris elegans group (2001) recognized one species with four infraspecific taxa. Since Mayfield's study, additional and more easily available collections provide a better knowledge of the geography and variability of the segregates. The review here is largely in agreement with Mayfield's observations but differs in the assessment of biological status and formal taxonomy.
  • Physostegia leptophylla, Narrowleaf Obedient Plant, False Dragonhead (Protected Plants of Georgia, Georgia DNR. Patrick, Allison & Krakow, 1995)
    A brief description of Physostegia leptophylla, along with a discussion of its range, habitat, special identification features, management recommendations, and a botanical illustration are included in this two-page fact sheet.
  • Lobelia batsonii (Campanulaceae), A New Species from the Sandhills of the Carolinas (Pittman & Sorrie, 2020)
    In recent years references have made to an undescribed Lobelia in the Sandhills Region of North and South Carolina. In this paper we provide a name for this new species –– Lobelia batsonii A.B. Pittman & Sorrie –– and describe its morphological and ecological characteristics.
  • Wading a nomenclatural quagmire—lectotypifications and resurrection of a long-neglected variety of Carex bullata (Poindexter & Weakley, 2018)
    Carex bullata Schukhr ex Willd. is a sparsely distributed sedge endemic to eastern North America. Within sect. Vesicariae, it is distinguished from other members by pistillate and staminate scales that lack scabrous awned tips, in conjunction with its long, scabrous-beaked perigynia. Like many members of the section, it is found in wetlands and is an anemophilous taxon that is often sterile. The staminate spikes of this species are usually elevated high above the pistillate spikes, which on occasion may be androgynous. Two apparent morphotypes are associated with Carex bullata. In addition to these two morphotypes, Carex bullata has been implicated as one of the parents of the putative hybrid Carex olneyi Boott.
  • A synopsis of the genus Sanicula (Apiaceae) in eastern Canada (Pryer & Phillippe, 1989)
    A synopsis of the genus Sanicula in eastern Canada is presented. A key to the taxa, pertinent synonymy, comparative descriptions of diagnostic characters, and notes on the taxonomy, distribution, habitat, and rare status are provided. Illustrations of umbellet and fruit morphology are also included.
  • New Invaders of the Northeast and Northcentral US (Rawlins et al., 2018)
    By the time many invasive species are on the radar, they have become widely established; it is much more cost effective to allocate resources toward invasive plant prevention or the rapid treatment of new introductions. The purpose of this guide is to help landowners and land managers recognize new invasive plants that are not yet widely distributed, so they can be treated rapidly and eradicated rather than becoming large and expensive problems. This guide focuses on species considered problematic in the 20 states that comprise the northeastern and northcentral United States.
  • New Invaders of the Southeast (Rawlins et al., 2018)
    By the time many invasive species are on the radar, they have become widely established; it is much more cost effective to allocate resources toward invasive plant prevention or the rapid treatment of new introductions. The purpose of this guide is to help landowners and land managers recognize new invasive plants that are not yet widely distributed, so they can be treated rapidly and eradicated rather than becoming large and expensive problems. This guide focuses on species considered potentially problematic in the 13 states that comprise the southeastern United States.
  • Phylogenetic Systematics of Strophostyles (Fabaceae) (Riley-Hulting, 2004)
    The genus Strophostyles Elliott is classified within the tribe Phaseoleae of the legume subfamily Papilionoideae. The asymmetric floral morphology of Strophostyles, whereby the rostrate keel petals curve to the right side of the flower, is characteristic of many genera in the tribe Phaseoleae subtribe Phaseolinae, a group of trifoliolate-leaved lianas comprising such well-known genera as Phaseolus L. and Vigna Savi. At the species level, floristic treatments dealing with Strophostyles have recognized at least three species, although species delimitation remains uncertain. Misidentification is common especially in the southeastern USA where the distributions of the traditionally recognized species broadly overlap. This difficulty arises because either the key morphologies are inadequate for diagnosing species identity, or species delimitations have been incorrectly drawn, or extensive introgressive hybridization is occurring.
  • Ranunculus ficaria L. sensu lato (Sell 1994)
    In the broad sense, Ranunculus ficaria L. (Ranunculaceae), the Lesser Celandine, is a gregarious species, easily recognised by its heart-shaped, bluntly angled or crenate, usually dark green leaves and shining, golden yellow flowers with 7-13 petals. Five taxa are recognised in this account: Three have small flowers and two large flowers. Two (one small-flowered and one large-flowered) have bulbils in the axils of their leaves. The nomenclature of the infraspecific taxa is in chaos. I have attempted to clarify it...
  • A multivariate morphometric study of the Solidago altissima complex and S. canadensis (Asteraceae: Astereae) (Semple et al., 2015)
    The Solidago altissima complex stretches across much of North America on the prairies and in the eastern deciduous forest. A multivariate morphometric analysis including 28 vegetative and floral traits scored on 162 specimens was performed to assess the classification of the complex in eastern North America proposed by Semple (2014). Discriminant analysis indicated support for recognizing the following taxa: Solidago altiplanities, Solidago altissima vars. altissima, gilvocanescens, and pluricephala, S. canadensis vars. canadensis and hargeri, and S. juliae.
  • Multivariate Studies of Solidago subsect. Squarrosae: the Solidago speciosa complex (Asteraceae) (Semple et al., 2017)
    Solidago speciosa complex includes four taxa in Solidago subsect. Squarrosae. The complex has been treated as a single species with for varieties and as four separate species. A multivariate morphometric analyses on 265 specimens of all 14 species of subsect. Squarrosae and 69 specimens of the S. speciosa complex were carried out to assess membership in different species complexes and to assess how statistically distinct S. jejunifolia, S. pallida, S. rigidiuscula and S. speciosa were from each other. Solidago erecta has also been included in the complex historically. A key to the five species of the S. speciosa complex is presented.
  • A Multivariate Study of Solidago subsect. Squarrosae: the Solidago puberula complex (Asteraceae) (Semple et al., 2020)
    The Solidago puberula complex is considered to include four species in Solidago subsect. Squarrosae. Solidago puberula and Solidago pulverulenta have sometimes been treated as conspecific (at varietal or subspecific rank) but here are separated. Solidago roanensis has very short hairs on the upper stems similar to those of the first two, but is glabrous to very sparsely hairy proximally. Solidago sciaphila has been considered closely similar to S. speciosa and S. hispida or possibly to S. roanensis. Among these four, multivariate analyses indicate that S. sciaphila is the most distinct and S. puberula and S. pulverulenta are the most similar.
  • Solidago aestivalis in the Carolinas (Sorrie, 2018)
    Distinguishing S. rugosa var. sphagnophila from S. latissimifolia P. Miller [= S. elliottii Torrey & A. Gray] can be challenging, as they share a number of morphological details. In the field, these morphological characters of var. sphagnophila recall those of S. latissimifolia much more so than those of others in the S. rugosa complex. In the following paragraphs, I make comparisons first between S. rugosa var. sphagnophila and S. latissimifolia and then with the S. rugosa complex.
  • Ipomopsis rubra (Polemoniaceae): Distribution and Habitat (Sorrie, Weakley, & Bradley, 2018)
    Over most of its range, Ipomopsis rubra has a patchy or irregular distribution, which has led to questions regarding its native status in a number of states. The species has long been in cultivation and escapes have provided additional distribution records. Habitat analysis demonstrates fidelity to several community types, but roadsides comprise the bulk of records. We document native distribution from North Carolina to Florida west to Oklahoma and Texas, in natural habitats ranging from maritime dunes to inland sandhills, river scour zones, and rocky slopes.
  • Key to the Bindweeds (Calystegia/Convolvulus, Convolvulaceae) of Alabama and adjacent states (Spaulding, 2013)
    Bindweeds are members of the Convolvulaceae (Morning-glory family) and are represented by two closely-related genera: Calystegia and Convolvulus. Bindweeds are perennial herbs with stems that frequently climb and/or twist, hence the common name. Not all bindweeds are climbers; some are erect and others tend to be more or less prostrate on the ground. Taxonomically, all bindweeds were originally placed in the genus Convolvulus by Linnaeus (1753), who named them after the Latin word convolve, “to twine around.” Later, Robert Brown (1810) separated Calystegia from Convolvulus based on the large bracts that often conceal the sepals. His new name was of Greek derivation and translates to “calyx covering.”
  • Key to the Dodders (Cuscuta, Convolvulaceae) of Alabama and Adjacent States (Spaulding, 2013)
    Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are members of the Morning-glory family (Convolvulaceae), although some authors have placed them in their own family (Cuscutaceae). All Cuscuta species are leafless, annual parasitic herbs that essentially lack chlorophyll. Their flowers are small and usually have whitish corollas with waxy textures. They have slender, twining, often yellowish-orange stems that utilize haustoria (specialized "sucking roots") to penetrate and extract nutrients from their host. In North America, the genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae) is represented by fifty-five species, nine of which are in Alabama, with six additional taxa occurring in Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, and the Florida Panhandle. Keys, illustrations, photographs, and commentary are provided for all fifteen taxa.
  • Key to the pinweeds (Lechea, Cistaceae) of Alabama and adjacent states (Spaulding, 2013)
    Pinweeds (Lechea spp.) are semi-woody (suffruticose) or herbaceous perennials in the Cistaceae (Rock-rose family). Eleven pinweeds are known from the five-state region of Alabama and adjacent states Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, and Florida. Keys, illustrations, photographs, and commentary are provided for all Southeastern taxa except Lechea lakelae (which is presumed to be extinct). Most species are low growing herbs with narrow leaves and numerous small flowers, which often resemble tiny pinheads. According to Britton (1894), each plant blooms once in the bright morning sunshine and soon after the three reddish petals wither away. The calyx on each flower is composed of five sepals in two distinct series. The two outer, bract-like sepals are slender and can be either longer or shorter than the three broader inner sepals. Rafinesque (1836) was the first to note that the length of the inner and outer sepals was a useful character in delineating species.
  • Key to the Daffodils (Narcissus, Amaryllidaceae) of Alabama and adjacent states (Spaulding & Barger, 2014)
    Daffodils (Narcissus spp.) are bulbous perennials in the Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis Family). Narcissus have showy white to yellow flowers with six tepals and a corona, which is also called a floral cup, tube or crown. In North America, six species and four hybrids have escaped cultivation. Each of these ten taxa occurs within the five-state region of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Keys, maps, photographs, and commentary are provided for each taxon.
  • Keys, distribution, and taxonomic notes for the lobelias (Lobelia, Campanulaceae) of Alabama and adjacent states (Spaulding & Barger, 2016)
    The genus Lobelia (Campanulaceae) is represented by 22 species and one hybrid in the five-state region of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Keys, distribution maps, photographs, and taxonomic notes are provided for each species.
  • Flora of northern Alabama, part 3. Primitive Angiosperms (Spaulding et al., 2018)
    The Flora of northern Alabama is a comprehensive floristic guide to native and naturalized plants found within the Interior Plains and Appalachian Highlands physiographic divisions of northern Alabama. (120 pages)
  • Flora of northern Alabama, part 4. Basal Monocots: Acorales and Alismatales. Sweetflag to Pondweeds (Spaulding et al., 2019)
    The Flora of northern Alabama is a comprehensive floristic guide to native and naturalized plants found within the Interior Plains and Appalachian Highlands physiographic divisions of northern Alabama. (132 pages)
  • Flora of northern Alabama, part 5. Liliaceous Families (Spaulding et al., 2021)
    The Flora of northern Alabama is a comprehensive floristic guide to native and naturalized plants found within the Interior Plains and Appalachian Highlands physiographic divisions of northern Alabama. (262 pages)
  • Flora of northern Alabama, part 6: Orchid and Iris Families (Spaulding et al., 2023)
    The Flora of northern Alabama is a comprehensive floristic guide to native and naturalized plants found within the Interior Plains and Appalachian Highlands physiographic divisions of northern Alabama. (165 pages)
  • Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas (Swearingen et al., 2010)
    This fourth edition has been updated, expanded and reorganized to provide more information in a more efficient manner. The 1book now includes information on 80 species (up from 60 previously) and expanded control guidance. A new section called “Plants to Watch” has been added which includes a number of species that may not be widespread but are increasingly catching the attention of ecologists, land managers and others as being invasive in natural habitats. (172 pages)
  • Desmodium glabellum and D. perplexum (Fabaceae): a morphological reevaluation (Thomas, 2020)
    Traditional morphological distinctions between Desmodium glabellum and D. perplexum are investigated. The ambiguity of traditional concepts is verified. Alternative distinctions based on less variable character states are proposed and tested as a new prescription for taxonomic concepts and as a model for accommodating ambiguities in organismal biology.
  • The genus Vaccinium L. (Ericaceae) in Virginia (Uttal, 1987)
    Fifteen species of Vaccinium L. (Ericaceae) are reported as native to Virginia. These are treated floristically and taxonomically. Instead of a single highbush species, Vaccinium corymbosum, five are proposed. Hybrids are discussed. Keys to sections and species are provided.
  • Keys to the Flora of Florida - 10, Galactia (Leguminosae) (Ward & Hall, 2004)
    The genus Galactia (Leguminosae) is a familiar yet difficult component of the southeastern flora. Though the taxa of which it is constituted are few, and though some are sharply distinct, others show variations so subtle and intergrading that no two investigators are in agreement as to the number of species or the characteristics by which they may be separated. Further reducing understanding are several recent nomenclatural reinterpretations which impose unfamiliar names or even reverse the application of two well-known names from their accustomed usage. The application of G. regularis and G. volubilis is reversed from that of other studies.
  • The Native Maples of Georgia (Ware, 2003)
    There are thirteen species of maples native to North America, with nine species and two varieties found in the Eastern United States and Canada, and four in the Western states and provinces. Evidently all of the Eastern species are found in Georgia.
  • New Combinations, Rank Changes ... in Vascular Flora of se US (Weakley et al., 2011)
    We make generic transfers and rank changes of taxa distributed primarily in the southeastern United States. These include transfers from Prenanthes to Nabalus (Asteraceae or Compositae), from Senecio to Packera (Asteraceae or Compositae), from Onosmodium to Lithospermum (Boraginaceae), from Trichomanes to Crepidomanes (Hymenophyllaceae), from Osmanthus to Cartrema (Oleaceae), from Thelypteris to Stegnogramma (Thelypteridaceae), from Panicum to Coleataenia (Poaceae or Gramineae), from Panicum to Dichanthelium (Poaceae or Gramineae), and from Vitis to Muscadinia (Vitaceae), as well as making rank changes involving taxa in Viburnum (Adoxaceae), Hypericum (Hypericaceae), Spigelia (Loganiaceae), Andropogon (Poaceae or Gramineae), and Leptochloa (Poaceae or Gramineae). New names are proposed in Coreopsis (Asteraceae or Compositae) and Lithospermum (Boraginaceae). We additionally discuss the taxonomy and appropriate rank of additional taxa not requiring new combinations in many of these genera, based on recent herbarium and field studies.
  • New combinations, rank changes... vascular flora of se US (Weakley et al., 2018a)
    As part of ongoing efforts to understand and document the flora of the southeastern United States, a number of taxonomic changes at generic, specific, and infraspecific rank are made. The genera (and families) affected are Endodeca (Aristolochiaceae), Erigeron, Pityopsis, and Solidago (Asteraceae), Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae), Carex (Cyperaceae), Baptisia and Indigofera (Fabaceae), Salvia and Scutellaria (Lamiaceae), Stenanthium (Melanthiaceae), Epidendrum (Orchidaceae), and Andropogon, Coleataenia, Dichanthelium, Digitaria, and Panicum (Poaceae).
  • Andropogon: A new name for a chalky bluestem (Weakley & Schori, 2018)
    Following Campbell’s revelatory work on the Andropogon virginicus L. complex (Campbell 1983, 2003), botanists working in the Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain have come to recognize and appreciate a diversity of taxa in the genus Andropogon, many of which had been recognized at one time but had usually been treated as one taxon during most of the 1900s. Among these taxa were three “chalky bluestems,” all three primarily distributed in Southeastern Coastal Plain longleaf pinelands and associated wetland communities and all with strongly whitened, waxy bases. These three bluestems have recently come to be regarded as separate species, with distinctive distributions and ecological associations in the Southeast.
  • Studies in the vascular flora of the southeastern US (Weakley et al., 2019)
    As part of ongoing efforts to understand and document the flora of the southeastern United States, we propose a number of taxonomic changes. In Trichostema, we name a new species, narrowly endemic to maritime grasslands in the Carolinas and warranting formal conservation status and action. In Dichanthelium (Poaceae), we continue the reassessment of taxa formerly recognized in Panicum and provide new combinations along with a new key to taxa in the Dichanthelium scabriusculum complex. In Paspalum (Poaceae), we address the controversial taxonomy of P. arundinaceum and P. pleostachyum and treat the two as conspecific, with P. arundinaceum the correct name. In Portulaca (Portulacaceae), we report the discovery of the Bahamian P. minuta as a native component of the North American flora, occurring in southern Florida.
  • Studies in the vascular flora of the southeastern US (Weakley et al., 2020)
    As part of ongoing efforts to understand, document, and conserve the flora of southeastern North America, we propose a number of taxonomic changes, nomenclatural changes, interpretations of nativity, and distributional accounts.
  • What do we know about Diamorpha smallii (Crassulaceae)? (Wilbur, 1988)
    ...it is disturbing to find that a plant recently described as "one of the biologically better-known taxa in the southeastern flora" (Spongberg 1978) is not only without a currently acceptable generic name but even its specific epithet is and has been the subject of much recent debate. There is little reason for complacency when one of our better known species is more or less nameless for more than a century and a half after its discovery.... Consequently it seems worthwhile to discuss the name of this unique plant which of necessity involves us not only with some of the early botanical history of the Southeast but also with the machinations of some of today's leading nomenclaturalists.
  • Fleischmannia and Conoclinium (Compositae, Eupatorieae) in eastern North America (Wooten & Clewell, 1971)
    The eastern North American species which are usually considered as members of Eupatorium have been assigned to five genera.... One species each has been placed in Fleischmannia and Conoclinium, and these two species are the subject of the present paper.
  • A Review of Arisaema (Araceae) in North America: Nine species instead of two? (Wyatt & Stoneburner, 2022)
    The most recent treatment of North American Arisaema recognizes only two species: A. triphyllum and A. dracontium. Much of the variation, especially in the triphyllum complex is attributed to rampant hybridization, for which there is little to no evidence. We provide arguments for recognizing at least nine species, though some of these taxa need verification involving additional fieldwork and DNA sequencing.
  • Prevention, Early Detection, and Eradication of Benghal Dayflower in Field Nurseries
    In addition to being a well-adapted invasive plant, Benghal dayflower is also a host to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Davis et al. 2006), a widespread and economically important nematode pest of ornamental and other crops Prevention, early detection, and eradication are critical since the presence of this noxious weed at your nursery can lead to quarantine. Employees should be trained to scout for this weed. Because the presence of this weed can have such an impact on your nursery business, correct identification is critical....
  • Green Adder's-mouth (Malaxis unifolia) fact sheet (Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program)
    Green Adder’s-mouth (Malaxis unifolia) is a small, pale green orchid (family Orchidaceae), known from a variety of forest and wetland habitats throughout eastern and central North America. Green Adder’s-mouth is most similar to Bayard’s Adder’s-mouth (Malaxis bayardii), a globally rare orchid... These orchids are so morphologically similar, they were once considered to be a single species. In addition to differences in preferred habitat, they can be differentiated by very close examination of the flower and inflorescence morphology.
  • Bunched arrowhead, Sagittaria fasciculata
    A brief description of Sagittaria fasciculata, along with a discussion of its life history, habitat, distribution, threats, management recommendations, and a botanical illustration are included in this one-page fact sheet.
  • Plant Risk Evaluator: Pennisetum alopecuroides
    Pennisetum alopecuroides (Cenchrus purpurascens) appears to present a high risk of invasiveness in Illinois. A sterile cultivar would be a safer choice for this beautiful and popular ornamental grass.
  • Pest Alert: Wooly Frogs Mouth
    Wooly frogs mouth appears to be quite aggressive in aquatic ecosystems, and likely out-competes other desirable wetland vegetation. Since North Carolina is the first state to have reported this species; it is unknown if other naturalized populations exist in the US. It has been cultivated in several University and botanical gardens in the US . A weed risk assessment was completed by the Plant Protection and Quarantine group associated with USDA-APHIS. Their assesment concluded that this plant is High Risk for Impact and Establishment and Spread in the US. Your help is needed to help us find and control new infestations of this plant.
  • Weed Risk Assessment for Philydrum lanuginosum (Philydraceae) - Woolly frogs mouth
    Philydrum lanuginosum is an herbaceous, perennial, aquatic plant that grows 50 to 180 cm tall. Leaves are two-ranked and linear, rather spongy-thickened, relatively flat, and grow 30 to 70 cm long. Multiple yellow, bilaterally symmetrical flowers are produced on a simple (or sometimes few-branched) spike inflorescence, and flowers have only one stamen. Philydrum lanuginosum is a self-pollinating, aquatic plant that produces thousands of dust-like seeds, which are dispersed by water. The seeds may also be dispersed by birds, wind, and other animals, as well as by people who engage in recreational activities in and around bodies of water. Seeds readily germinate in water, and seedlings can float for a while until they find a suitable site for establishment.