Spermatophytes (seed plants): Gymnosperms (non-flowering plants): Conifers: Pinales
Dig deeper at SERNEC, a consortium of southeastern herbaria.
You may also want to check Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of North Carolina
Learn more about Eastern Hemlock from the Vascular Plants of North Carolina.
SYNONYMOUS WITH VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS (Radford, Ahles, & Bell, 1968) 016-03-001:
Tsuga canadensis FAMILY Pinaceae
SYNONYMOUS WITH Manual of the Southeastern Flora (Small, 1933, 1938)
Eastern Hemlock, Canada Hemlock
To see larger pictures, click or hover over the thumbnails.
JK Marlow jkm060521_155
May Macon County NC
Highlands Biological Station
Bark brown to red-brown, scaly, becoming thick and forming plates or ridges, per Woody Plants of the Southeastern US: A Winter Guide (Lance, 2004).
JK Marlow jkm080802_152
August Transylvania County NC
Blue Ridge Parkway
The tiny hemlock woolly adelgid has left a trail of dead hemlocks, per Wildflowers & Plant Communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont (Spira, 2011).
JK Marlow jkm140816_698
August Jackson County NC
High Hampton Inn
Seed cone of T. canadensis on left, that of T. caroliniana on right.
COMPARE conifers (not including Pines)
Richard and Teresa Ware rtw_t_canadensis_leaves_1
September Walker County GA
Needles 3/8" to 3/4" long, flexible, per Native Trees of the Southeast, An Identification Guide (Kirkman, Brown, & Leopold, 2007).
Richard and Teresa Ware rtw_tsuga_canadensis_s
Cones pendant, small, with thin scales, per Woody Plants of the Blue Ridge (Lance).
COMPARE cones of Fir, Hemlock and Spruce
JK Marlow s041226_b
December Greenville County SC
Caesars Head State Park
Needles 2-ranked, flattened, with 2 narrow whitish bands of stomata beneath, per Native Trees of the Southeast, An Identification Guide (Kirkman, Brown, & Leopold, 2007).
COMPARE needles of Fir, Hemlock and Spruce
L.L. (Chick) Gaddy llg_deadhemlocks
Month Unknown Haywood County NC
Dead Canada hemlock in high elevation cove forest in Pigeon River headwaters, per Alpine South: Plants and Plant Communities of the High Elevations of the Southern Appalachians (Gaddy, 2014).
L.L. (Chick) Gaddy llg_hemlocks
Left: leaves (needles) of Carolina hemlock. Right: Canada or eastern hemlock, per Alpine South: Plants and Plant Communities of the High Elevations of the Southern Appalachians (Gaddy, 2014).
Manual of the Southeastern Flora (Small, 1933, 1938)
Habitat: In a wide variety of habitats in the mountains, most typically and abundantly in moist sites in ravines or coves along streams, but likely to be found in all but the driest habitats between 300 and 1500 m (even occurring in peaty bogs, where it has a sickly yellow color and short life expectancy); in the western Piedmont of NC limited to progressively rarer microhabitats (primarily north-facing river bluffs), reaching its eastward limit in NC at a disjunct stand at Hemlock Bluff State Natural Area, Wake County (but uncommon in the Piedmont of VA and even present, though rare, in the Coastal Plain of VA), per Weakley's Flora
Native to the Carolinas & Georgia
Click here to see a map, notes, and images from Weakley's Flora of the Southeastern US.
Click here to see a map showing all occurrences known to SERNEC, a consortium of southeastern herbaria. (Zoom in to see more detail.)
Needles flattened, flexible, to 3/4" long
Needles not in bundles, 2-ranked
TO LEARN MORE about this plant, look it up in a good book!
- Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Wasowski & Wasowski, 1994, 2020) p040
- Gardening with the Native Plants of Tennessee (Hunter, 2002) p318
- Identifying Trees: An All-Season Guide to Eastern North America (Williams, 2007) p208
- Landscaping with Native Trees (Sternberg & Wilson, 1995) p247
- Native Trees of the Southeast, An Identification Guide (Kirkman, Brown, & Leopold, 2007) p277
- Field Guide to the Rare Plants of Georgia (Chafin, 2007) p417
- Trees of the Southeastern United States (Duncan & Duncan, 1988) p038
- Woody Plants of the Blue Ridge (Lance) p02
- Wildflowers & Plant Communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont (Spira, 2011) p264
- Woody Plants of the Southeastern US: A Winter Guide (Lance, 2004) p354